A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed.
~ Archbishop Desmond Tutu, 1999
Lingua::Romana::Perligata -- Perl in Latin
The Lingua::Romana::Perligata makes it makes it possible to write Perl
programs in Latin. (If you have to ask "Why?", then the answer probably
won't make any sense to you either.)
The linguistic principles behind Perligata are described in:
The module is `use'd at the start of the program, and installs a filter
which allows the rest of the program to be written in (modified) Latin,
as described in the accompanying documentation.
#! /usr/bin/perl -w
adnota Illud Cribrum Eratothenis
maximum tum val inquementum tum biguttam tum stadium egresso scribe.
vestibulo perlegementum da meo maximo.
maximum tum novumversum egresso scribe.
da II tum maximum conscribementa meis listis.
dum damentum nexto listis decapitamentum fac sic
lista sic hoc tum nextum recidementum cis vannementa da listis.
next tum biguttam tum stadium tum nextum tum novumversum
Damian Conway (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Lingua::Romana::Perligata has been uploaded to the CPAN
and is also available from:
This list is drawn mostly from the book Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. Alice and Bob are archetypes in cryptography; Eve is also common. Names further down the alphabet are less common.
- Alice and Bob. Generally, Alice wants to send a message to Bob. These names were used by Ron Rivest in the 1978 Communications of the ACM article presenting the RSA cryptosystem, and in A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems published April 4, 1977, revised September 1, 1977 as technical Memo LCS/TM82 by MIT. Rivest denies that these names have any relation with the 1969 movie Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice as occasionally suggested by others.
- Carol or Charlie, as a third participant in communications. Thereafter, we often have Dave, a fourth participant, and so on alphabetically.
- Eve, an eavesdropper, is usually a passive attacker. While she can listen in on messages between Alice and Bob, she cannot modify them. In quantum cryptography, Eve may also represent the environment.
- Isaac, an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
- Ivan, an issuer (as in financial cryptography).
- Justin, from the justice system.
- Mallory, a malicious attacker; unlike Eve, Mallory can modify messages, substitute her own messages, replay old messages, and so on. The problem of securing a system against Mallory is much greater than against Eve. The names Marvin and Mallet can also be used for this role.
- Matilda, a merchant (as in e-commerce or financial cryptography).
- Oscar, an opponent, is usually taken as equivalent to Mallory.
- Pat or Peggy, a prover, and Victor, a verifier, often must interact in some way to show that the intended transaction has actually taken place. They are often found in zero-knowledge proofs. Another name pair sometimes used is Pat and Vanna (after the host and hostess on the Wheel of Fortune television show).
- Plod, a law enforcement officer (also “Officer Plod”) from the children’s fictional character Mr. Plod, in the Noddy books by Enid Blyton.
- Steve, sometimes used in reference to Steganography.
- Trent, a trusted arbitrator, is some kind of neutral third party, whose exact role varies with the protocol under discussion.
- Trudy, an intruder: another alternative to Mallory.
- Walter, a warden, may be needed to guard Alice and Bob in some respect, depending on the protocol being discussed.
- Zoe, often the last party to be involved in a cryptographic protocol.